What are the symptoms A child with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) may: have speech that is difficult to understandstruggle to say words or sentencesnot understand words that are being used, or the instructions they hearhave difficulties knowing how to talk and listen to others in a conversation. A child with specific language impairment (SLI) may: have difficulty saying what they want to, even though they have ideastalk in sentences but be difficult to understandsound muddledfind it difficult to understand words and long instructionshave difficulty finding the words they want to sayfind it hard to join in and follow what is going on in group situations. Very often children with SLI have difficulty learning to read and spell. They are also more likely to have behavioural, emotional and social difficulties, mainly relationships with other children and emotional difficulties, and to a lesser extent conduct problems. What are the causes? Children might have SLCN for a whole range of reasons. For example it may be associated with a learning difficulty or physical difficulty. SLI fits under the broad heading of SLCN, but these children have very specific difficulties with language. They don’t have any underlying syndrome or physical problem that may make it difficult to learn how to communicate. How is it diagnosed? Significant SLCN will be apparent in the preschool period with identification by around age 2 years plus. Diagnosis may be by a speech and language therapist (SLT), but often the first person parents will contact will be the GP or early years’ staff if the child is attending early years provision. A community paediatrician may also be involved. Parents may be able to self refer for assessment of their child’s speech and language needs. How is it treated? Speech and language therapy is given to children and young people to enable them to reach their potential in terms of speech, language and communication. Speech and language therapy should be delivered by a trained SLT. Education staff are also important, both in early years settings and schools, because addressing language difficulties also requires educational interventions. Ideally, SLTs and education staff should work collaboratively as their different expertise is complementary. Inheritance patterns and prenatal diagnosis Inheritance patternsPatterns of inheritance for SLI are not known. Patterns of inheritance for secondary speech and/or language impairment will be based on the inheritance of that particular condition. Affected families should be referred to a genetics service for further support and information. Prenatal diagnosisThis will be possible when the secondary difficulty is associated with a specific disorder for which prenatal diagnosis has been developed. Is there support? Afasic Helpline: 0300 666 9410Email: via websiteWebsite: afasic.org.uk The Organisation is a Registered Charity in England and Wales No. 1045617. It provides information, support and training for parents of children and young people with speech and language impairments. Members meet in local groups in many areas of the UK. Group details last reviewed March 2019. I CAN Main switchboard: 0845 225 4071Enquiry service line: 020 7843 2544Email: email@example.comWebsite: ican.org.uk I CAN is a registered charity in England and Wales No. 210031. I CAN supports children from 0-19 through their Talk programmes and two specialist schools. They provide resources and information for parents, families and people who work with children and young people through their Enquiry Service. I CAN work in nurseries and schools across the UK with evidence-based programmes and run two special schools for children with the most severe and complex needs. Group details last updated April 2016.